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Russian literature | The 19th century

The initial decades of the 1800s in the realm of literature were characterized by the prominence of Romantic poetry. The trend was set in motion by Vasily Zhukovsky with his 1802 rendition of Thomas Gray’s “An Elegy Written in a Country Church Yard,” which sparked an inclination towards personal and mournful poetic expressions. This trend was further expanded upon by luminaries such as Konstantin Batyushkov, Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky, and a youthful Aleksandr Pushkin. Despite a surge in demand for poetry with a civic thrust in the late 1810s and early 1820s, the majority of eminent poets continued to tread the lyrical path pioneered by Zhukovsky. Nevertheless, by the 1820s, Pushkin had matured and embarked on a unique trajectory, creating a series of seminal works that cemented his status as the paramount poet of Russia, akin to the stature of William Shakespeare in English literature or Dante in Italian. Among Pushkin’s prolific output were the Byronic narratives “The Prisoner of the Caucasus” (1820–21) and “The Gypsies” (1824), the verse novel “Yevgeny Onegin” (published 1833), the Shakespearean drama “Boris Godunov” (1831), and a host of exceptional lyrical poetry. Pushkin’s verse is distinguished by its classical symmetry, ingenious and often incisive use of Russian language, and profound philosophical themes.

The 1830s witnessed a transition in the literary domain, with poetry receding and prose ascending, a shift that coincided with changes in literary institutions. The aristocratic salon, once the cradle of Russian literature, was gradually replaced by the influential monthly “thick journals,” whose editors and critics shaped the literary tastes of Russia. The pivot towards prose was exemplified by Pushkin’s works such as “Tales of the Late Ivan Petrovich Belkin” (1831), “The Queen of Spades” (1834), and “The Captain’s Daughter” (1836), all of which were published prior to his demise in 1837. Additionally, the 1830s marked the debut of Nikolay Gogol, initially recognized as a satirist from Ukraine, whose works, including “The Nose,” “The Government Inspector” (both 1836), and “Dead Souls” (1842), are now revered for their linguistic inventiveness and prefigure the 20th-century absurdist movement. The late 1830s also saw a resurgence of poetic vigor in the verses of Mikhail Lermontov, who also penned “A Hero of Our Time” (1840), Russia’s inaugural psychological novel.

The literary focus in Russia shifted significantly in the 1840s, moving from the personal and Romantic to the civic and realistic, under the stewardship of the esteemed literary critic Vissarion Belinsky. Belinsky advocated for literature that engaged with contemporary social issues, without forsaking its aesthetic value. By the end of the 1840s, Belinsky’s vision had prevailed. Early examples of Russian realism include Ivan Goncharov’s “A Common Story” (1847) and Fyodor Dostoyevsky’s “Poor Folk” (1846).

From the 1840s until the dawn of the 20th century, Russian literature was dominated by the realist novel, which was not a uniform movement. The early phase often employed the “physiological sketch,” typified by Ivan Turgenev’s “A Sportsman’s Sketches” (1852), which vividly portrayed the plight of Russian serfs and reputedly influenced Tsar Alexander II’s decision to emancipate them. Turgenev’s subsequent novels, particularly “Fathers and Sons” (1862), were celebrated for encapsulating the zeitgeist of Russian society.

The two other titans of 19th-century Russian realism were Dostoyevsky and Leo Tolstoy. Dostoyevsky, after his arrest in 1849 and subsequent spiritual awakening, returned to the literary scene and infused his works with Orthodox messianic ideas. His major novels, including “Crime and Punishment” (1866), “The Idiot” (1868–69), “The Possessed” (1872), and “The Brothers Karamazov” (1879–80), feature intense character studies and dramatic narratives. Conversely, Tolstoy’s novels such as “War and Peace” (1865–69) and “Anna Karenina” (1875–77) delve into the quotidian lives of ordinary individuals with profound psychological and sociological depth.

By the early 1880s, the preeminence of the realist novel began to wane, and the successor to this literary form remained uncertain. Russian poetry had not been central to the literary scene since the 1830s, and drama, despite notable contributions from Aleksandr Ostrovsky, remained a peripheral genre for many authors. The late 19th century saw the emergence of Anton Chekhov as a master of the short story, achieving the narrative potency of his predecessors within a concise format. His most acclaimed stories, such as “The Man in a Case” (1898), “The Lady with a Lapdog” (1899), “The Darling” (1899), and “In the Ravine” (1900), showcased his literary prowess. Chekhov also gained recognition for his plays, including “Uncle Vanya” (1897) and “The Cherry Orchard” (first performed 1904). Following Chekhov, Maxim Gorky and Ivan Bunin, who later won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1933, continued the tradition of short fiction into the new century.

Russian literature | The 20th century

The dawn of the 20th century heralded a vibrant resurgence in Russian cultural arts, notably in poetry and drama, with the emergence of the “Silver Age,” which not only rivaled but in certain aspects excelled beyond the celebrated “Golden Age” of Pushkin. The previously dominant civic-focused narrative in Russian literature since the 1840s temporarily receded, giving way to an avant-garde movement that embraced the ethos of “art for art’s sake,” drawing inspiration from French Symbolism. The early Russian Symbolists, sometimes referred to as “decadents,” boasted figures such as Valery Bryusov, Konstantin Balmont, and Zinaida Gippius. The subsequent wave of Symbolists, inclined towards mysticism and apocalyptic themes, included luminaries like Aleksandr Blok, renowned as one of Russia’s most gifted lyric poets, alongside Vyacheslav Ivanov and Andrey Bely. This movement prevailed in the literary sphere until around 1910, when internal discord precipitated its decline.

The era surrounding the 1917 Russian Revolution was marked by the emergence of six exceptionally talented and challenging poets. Anna Akhmatova gained early acclaim with her concise and poignant lyrics, later crafting the extensive “Requiem” between 1935 and 1940, a tribute to Stalin’s purge victims, including her own son, though not published in Russia until 1989. Futurists such as Velimir Khlebnikov and Vladimir Mayakovsky pursued radical experimentation to liberate poetic expression from traditional constraints. Marina Tsvetayeva, known for her innovative verse, produced significant works abroad but tragically ended her life in the Soviet Union in 1941. Boris Pasternak, a Nobel laureate in literature in 1958, crafted deeply resonant lyrics during this period, and Osip Mandelshtam authored some of the most exquisite and evocative lyric poetry in the Russian language.

Post-revolutionary authors gravitated towards prose, particularly the short story and novella genres, with some drawing inspiration from the revolution and the ensuing Russian Civil War, such as Boris Pilnyak, Isaak Babel, and Nobel Prize recipient Mikhail Sholokhov. Others depicted life in the nascent Soviet Union with varying degrees of sardonic critique, including Mikhail Zoshchenko, Ilya Ilf, Yevgeny Petrov, and Yury Olesha. Russian writing also thrived among anti-communist exiles in countries like Germany, France, Italy, and the United States, with diverse figures including Vladimir Nabokov, Yevgeny Zamyatin, and theologian-philosophers like Vladimir Nikolayevich Lossky, Sergey Bulgakov, and Nikolay Berdyayev.

The decade following the revolution witnessed significant developments in literary theory and criticism, revolutionizing literary studies globally. The Moscow Linguistic Circle and OPOYAZ in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg) spearheaded Formalist literary criticism, focusing on the intrinsic structure of literary texts. Concurrently, Mikhail Bakhtin was formulating a sophisticated critique centered on ethical issues and their representation, particularly in novels.

By the late 1920s, the Soviet era of experimental literature concluded as censorship intensified and silenced many prominent writers. During the late 1920s and 1930s, Socialist Realism became the mandated literary method for Soviet writers. A few works from this period, such as Fyodor Gladkov’s “Cement,” Nikolay Ostrovsky’s “How the Steel Was Tempered,” and Valentin Katayev’s “Time, Forward!” managed to maintain literary interest. However, the era’s true masterpieces, which did not conform to Socialist Realism, remained unpublished until much later. These include Mikhail Bulgakov’s satirical “The Master and Margarita” and Andrey Platonov’s grim depictions of Russian life in “The Foundation Pit” and “Chevengur.”

The post-Stalin “thaw” saw the rise of new writers and literary movements in the 1950s and early ’60s. Influential poets like Joseph Brodsky, Yevgeny Yevtushenko, and Andrey Voznesensky emerged, while Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn shocked audiences with his Gulag narratives, particularly “One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich.” The era also saw the rise of “youth” prose, akin to J.D. Salinger’s style, with authors such as Vasily Aksyonov and Vladimir Voynovich. However, by the late 1960s, many of these voices were once again suppressed, with Solzhenitsyn and others forced into exile, and the most compelling writing went unpublished.

From the late 1960s through the early 1980s, “village prose” writers, notably Valentin Rasputin and Vasily Shukshin, addressed the tension between rural traditions and modernity with a realistic approach. Yury Trifonov’s morally intricate urban narratives, such as “The House on the Embankment,” also gained prominence. Yet, as in earlier decades, the period’s most significant literature was initially published outside the Soviet Union, with authors like Varlam Shalamov, Andrey Sinyavsky, and Venedikt Yerofeyev producing notable works.

The 1980s saw a resurgence in poetry, with conceptualists like Dmitry Prigov and meta-metaphoric poets such as Aleksey Parshchikov and Olga Sedakova. The 1990s proved challenging for Russian writers, with the publishing industry struggling amidst economic turmoil. Nonetheless, new literary awards emerged, including the Russian Booker Prize and the Anti-Booker Prize, the latter established by Nezavisimaya Gazeta in 1995 as a distinctly Russian accolade. Tatyana Tolstaya gained prominence following her satirical novel “The Slynx,” and despite some critics labeling the decade as a “twilight period,” detective novels, especially those by Boris Akunin, enjoyed considerable success.

This comprehensive overview encapsulates the dynamic and tumultuous trajectory of Russian literature from the onset of the 20th century to the turn of the 21st, highlighting the profound contributions of its poets, novelists, and critics to the global literary landscape.

Russian music | The 19th century

Prior to the 18th century, the landscape of Russian music was primarily shaped by traditional folk melodies and liturgical compositions. It was not until the 1730s that secular compositions, influenced by Western conventions, began to emerge, prompted by Empress Anna Ivanovna’s introduction of an Italian opera company to her royal court. By the late 18th century, a modest repertoire of comic operas, with Russian texts and crafted by both domestic and international composers, had started to take form. Among the first Russian composers to achieve international acclaim was Mikhail Glinka, an aristocrat who honed his musical skills in Milan and Berlin. His works, notably “A Life for the Tsar” (1836) and “Ruslan and Lyudmila” (1842), based on Pushkin’s narratives, are recognized as the earliest Russian operas that continue to be a part of the global standard operatic repertoire.

The latter half of the 19th century witnessed the establishment of a vibrant musical scene, largely due to the endeavors of composer and pianist Anton Rubinstein. With imperial support, he founded the inaugural professional symphony orchestra (1859) and conservatory (1862) in St. Petersburg, setting a precedent that was swiftly emulated across other Russian cities. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, an alumnus of Rubinstein’s conservatory, emerged as Russia’s first significant full-time professional composer. His emotionally compelling works, such as “Swan Lake,” “The Nutcracker,” and “The Sleeping Beauty,” maintain a strong presence in today’s performance circuits. Contemporaneous composers like Modest Mussorgsky, Aleksandr Borodin, and Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov, despite being largely self-taught and engaged in nonmusical professions, made significant contributions to the national music canon. These composers favored a more pronounced nationalistic expression in their music compared to the conservatory-educated Tchaikovsky. Their notable operatic works include Mussorgsky’s “Boris Godunov” (final version first performed 1874), Borodin’s “Prince Igor” (first performed 1890), and Rimsky-Korsakov’s “Scheherazade” symphony (first performed 1888), each leaving a lasting impact on Russian musical heritage.

Russian music | The 20th century

In the dawn of the 20th century, the Russian musical landscape was notably shaped by the emergence of three distinguished composers: Aleksandr Scriabin, Sergey Rachmaninoff, and Igor Stravinsky. Scriabin, renowned for his virtuosity on the piano, transcended traditional boundaries by incorporating elements of mysticism into his compositions, thereby creating a musical expression that paralleled the Symbolist literary movement of that era. Rachmaninoff, equally acclaimed as a pianist, gained recognition for his concerti and the illustrious Rhapsody on a Theme of Paganini (1954) for piano and orchestra. Stravinsky, a disciple of Rimsky-Korsakov, achieved early acclaim through his collaboration with Serge Diaghilev and the Ballets Russes, resulting in the celebrated Parisian premieres of The Firebird (1910), Petrushka (1911), and The Rite of Spring (1913). Both Stravinsky, in 1914, and Rachmaninoff, in 1917, relocated from Russia, initially to Western Europe and subsequently to the United States, although Stravinsky revisited Russia in his later years.

During the Soviet era, the musical domain was predominantly influenced by Sergey Prokofiev and Dmitry Shostakovich. Prokofiev, after a period of emigration following the revolution, returned to the Soviet Union in the mid-1930s and, despite his earlier modernist leanings, adapted his style to align with the expectations of the Soviet regime. His early magnum opus was the opera The Fiery Angel (radio premiere 1954), based on a Symbolist novel by Valery Bryusov. Prokofiev’s later Soviet-era masterpieces include the ballet Romeo and Juliet (1935–36), the cantata Aleksandr Nevsky (1939), and his operatic rendition (1942) of Tolstoy’s War and Peace. Shostakovich, renowned for his extensive output of instrumental music, including 15 symphonies and 15 string quartets, saw his promising career as a stage composer interrupted when his opera The Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District was publicly denounced in 1936 and subsequently banned. He, along with other Russian artists, faced further repression during the Zhdanovshchina period (1946–53), a time when Soviet authorities sought to tighten control over artistic expression.

In the later Soviet and post-Soviet periods, Edison Denisov, Sofia Gubaidulina, and Alfred Schnittke emerged as prominent composers. Gubaidulina and Schnittke relocated to Germany in the early 1990s, joining a community of Russian expatriates. The Soviet conservatories have been instrumental in nurturing generations of globally acclaimed soloists, including violinists David Oistrakh and Gidon Kremer, cellist Mstislav Rostropovich, pianists Sviatoslav Richter and Emil Gilels, and vocalist Galina Vishnevskaya. The mid-1980s saw an easing of restrictions on Soviet artists under Mikhail Gorbachev’s reform policies, leading to celebrated returns to Russia by emigres such as Rostropovich and pianist Vladimir Horowitz.

In the realm of popular music, numerous figures gained prominence, though not all were officially endorsed. The legacy of two “balladeers”—songwriters who performed their own compositions accompanied by guitar—is particularly noteworthy. Vladimir Vysotsky, an actor and musician with a distinctive raspy voice, became a cultural icon through bootleg cassette recordings that spread across the Soviet Union during the 1960s and ’70s until his death in 1980. Georgian Bulat Okudzhava also amassed a devoted audience. Jazz, sanctioned by Soviet authorities, became one of the nation’s most favored musical genres, with the Ganelin Trio, a preeminent jazz ensemble, touring internationally throughout the 1980s. Pop singer Alla Pugacheva also captivated audiences in the 1970s. Initially, Russian rock musicians emulated Western styles and songs, but by the early 1980s, bands like Akvarium, led by the influential Boris Grebenshikov, began to forge a unique Russian rock identity. Despite police disruptions, Akvarium’s informal “concerts” and bootleg recordings ignited an underground counterculture and inspired other bands, such as Kino. Both rock and pop music have continued to thrive in post-Soviet Russia.

The visual arts | The 19th century

In the realm of visual arts, Russia experienced a more gradual evolution towards European styles compared to its literary advancements. Notably, Dmitry Levitsky stood out as a distinguished portraitist, but the 18th and early 19th centuries saw a scarcity of prominent Russian painters. It was not until the 1830s, subsequent to the establishment of the Russian Academy of Arts in 1757, that Russian artists began to receive formal training abroad. This era gave rise to talented individuals such as Aleksandr Ivanov and Karl Bryullov, who were celebrated for their Romantic historical paintings. Nevertheless, a distinctive national painting tradition did not emerge until the 1870s with the advent of the “Itinerants.” Despite their limited international recognition, the tranquil landscapes by Isaak Levitan, the poignant portraits of Ivan Kramskoy and Ilya Repin, and the socially charged genre scenes by Vladimir Makovsky, Vasily Perov, and Repin are works that merit global acclaim.

The architectural landscape of 19th-century Russia was marked by the Slavic Revival, which embraced medieval art forms and underscored the importance of Russian cultural identity. This period was characterized by innovative designs, particularly evident in the construction of railway stations. Notable examples include the Moscow Rail Terminal on the Nevsky Prospect (1851) in St. Petersburg, as well as several older terminals in Moscow, such as the Leningrad Station (originally Nikolaevskiy; 1844–51). The original Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow, consecrated in 1883, stood as a testament to this era’s monumental architecture. Although it was demolished in 1932 by the Soviet regime, it was reconstructed in the 1990s, reinstating its historical significance.

The visual arts | The 20th century

In the realm of visual arts, the dawn of the 20th century witnessed a remarkable surge in artistic innovation, with Russian artists emerging as pivotal contributors to the European art milieu. This era was characterized by a departure from realism, embracing movements such as primitivism, Symbolism, and abstract art. The Jack of Diamonds artist collective championed cutting-edge European avant-garde movements, incorporating these influences into their own creations and showcasing works by notable European artists including Albert Gleizes and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. Vasily Kandinsky’s period was distinguished by the creation of profoundly influential lyrical abstractions, while Kazimir Malevich ventured into the stark geometric abstraction known as Suprematism. The architectural landscape was similarly transformative, exemplified by Vladimir Tatlin’s ambitious, albeit unrealized, Monument to the Third International (1920), a design that boldly eschewed historical architectural precedents in favor of a futuristic vision anchored in technological advancement. Concurrently, Marc Chagall embarked on a unique artistic journey, crafting poetic and whimsical paintings rooted in his personal mythos, which eluded conventional categorization.

The 1920s continued this trend of artistic exploration, with Constructivism standing out as a particularly significant movement. Pioneered by figures such as El Lissitzky and Aleksandr Rodchenko, and building on Tatlin’s earlier experiments, Constructivists were drawn to precise geometric forms and sharp graphic design. They extended their vision beyond art, engaging in the design of living spaces, household items, and graphic design, thereby shaping everyday life. Artists outside the Constructivist realm, like Pavel Filonov and Mariya Ender, also made notable contributions during this time.

However, by the late 1920s, pressures similar to those faced by experimental literature began to impact the visual arts. The enforcement of Socialist Realism led to the marginalization of the once-celebrated painters of the early 1920s. Their masterpieces were removed from public view, and the artists themselves faced obscurity. Experimental art gave way to ubiquitous depictions of Vladimir Lenin, as seen in Isaak Brodsky’s Lenin at the Smolny (1930), and idealized Socialist Realist portrayals of daily life, such as The Tractor Drivers’ Supper (1951). It was not until the late 1980s that the seminal Russian artworks of the early 20th century reemerged for public appreciation. In the field of architecture, a rigid Neoclassicism prevailed during this period.

The visual arts endured a prolonged recovery from the Stalinist era, lagging behind literature. It was only in the 1960s and ’70s that a new wave of “underground” artists, including Ernst Neizvestny, Ilya Kabakov, Mikhail Shemyakin, and Erik Bulatov, came to the fore. Their artistic expressions ranged from primitivism to hyperrealism, the grotesque, and abstraction, all unified by a shared rejection of Socialist Realist doctrine. Postwar architectural output was largely dominated by uninspired, monolithic housing developments. However, as the century progressed, these structures were increasingly criticized, and a new generation of architects sought to create buildings that were more harmonious with their surroundings, often blending European and Russian architectural traditions.

By the mid-1980s, a thaw in political climate facilitated a revival of artistic experimentation within Russia, leading to successful exhibitions for many Russian artists, both domestically and internationally. The late 1980s saw a significant emigration of Russian artists, with many gaining international acclaim. Among these, Vitaly Komar and Alex Melamid achieved notable recognition in the 1990s for their project that wittily and systematically captured global preferences in painting.

The performing arts | The 19th century

Ballet was initially introduced to Russia in the early 18th century, with the establishment of the nation’s inaugural ballet school in 1734. For a considerable period, Russian ballet was heavily influenced by Western European, notably French and Italian, styles until the early 19th century. It was during this time that Russian artists began to incorporate indigenous folk elements into the ballet, enriching it with a distinctive cultural character.

Throughout the 19th century, the dramatic and ballet theatres operated under the strict supervision of the government. Performers, including actors and dancers, were considered civil servants and, regrettably, were often subjected to unfavorable conditions. Despite these challenges, the theatrical scene in Russia was notably vibrant during this era.

Prominent figures in the Russian performing arts during the early 19th century included the esteemed ballerina Istomina and the celebrated actor Mikhail Shchepkin. Internationally, Russian theatre achieved its most noteworthy acclaim in the realm of classical ballet. Beginning in the 1820s, Russian ballet dancers have maintained a dominant presence on the global stage.

The Russian Imperial Theatres attracted a host of eminent choreographers, among them those of international origin. One of the most illustrious was Marius Petipa, who is renowned for his choreography of Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky’s iconic ballets, “Swan Lake” and “The Sleeping Beauty.” These works stand as testament to the enduring legacy and global influence of Russian ballet.

The performing arts | The 20th century

During the initial decades of the 20th century, the Russian theatrical scene was prominently shaped by the influential contributions of producer Serge Diaghilev and directors Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vsevolod Meyerhold. In 1898, Stanislavsky, alongside Vladimir Nemirovich-Danchenko, established the Moscow Art Theatre, which was later renowned as the Moscow Academic Art Theatre. Stanislavsky’s rigorous demands for historical precision, lifelike realism, and deep psychological engagement from his actors led to a series of acclaimed productions that spanned from the early 1900s to the 1930s. The theatre gained particular recognition for its renditions of Anton Chekhov’s works, notably “The Seagull,” which was the highlight of its opening season.

Meyerhold, initially an actor under Stanislavsky, diverged from his mentor’s dedication to realism. Embracing the Russian Revolution, Meyerhold dedicated his exceptional skills to the development of a revolutionary form of theatre for the nascent Soviet state. His innovative and dynamic productions throughout the 1920s and 1930s encompassed both modern drama and classical works. Despite his early successes, Meyerhold’s unorthodox approach eventually led to his downfall, culminating in his arrest and execution in 1940.

Serge Diaghilev distinguished himself as a masterful impresario and organizer, with his Ballets Russes debuting numerous seminal ballet works in the early 20th century. Although the company was primarily based in Paris, Diaghilev collaborated with preeminent Russian composers, such as Igor Stravinsky, as well as artists and dancers of Russian origin, contributing to the ensemble’s legendary status.

In the Soviet era, ballet flourished not through innovation but by preserving the classical dance traditions established before 1917, as exemplified by the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow and the Kirov (now Mariinsky) Theatre in Leningrad (present-day St. Petersburg). The Soviet choreographic institutions nurtured a lineage of world-renowned dancers, including Maya Plisetskaya, Rudolf Nureyev, and Mikhail Baryshnikov.

Puppet theatre also achieved notable success, with the Obraztsov Puppet Theatre (originally the State Central Puppet Theatre) in Moscow, founded by Sergey Obraztsov, enchanting audiences of all ages. The Moscow State Circus, known for its extraordinary performances, continued to garner international praise, particularly after moving to a larger venue in 1971 and becoming the Great Moscow State Circus.

In the era following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Russian theatre has continued to flourish. Theatres in Moscow and St. Petersburg have sustained their preeminent status, and they have been joined by a multitude of theatres across the nation. Freed from governmental censorship, these institutions have embraced experimentation with avant-garde techniques and themes, moving away from political narratives towards classical and psychological explorations. Since the late 1990s, the Bolshoi Theatre’s prominence has been rivaled by the emergence of the Novaya Opera Theatre in Moscow, among other successful venues such as the Luna Theater, Arbat-Opera, Moscow City Opera, and the Helikon-Opera. For a more detailed discussion, please refer to the topics of Western theatre and dance.

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