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Iran country overview

The land of Iran

Geography, People, Culture, and Economic Profile

Iran information index

Climate of Iran

Iran’s diverse climate is influenced by a variety of factors, making it a truly unique place in terms of weather patterns. The winter months see the arrival of a high-pressure belt from Siberia, pushing cold air westward and southward towards the heart of the Iranian plateau. At the same time, low-pressure systems develop over bodies of water like the Caspian Sea, the Persian Gulf, and the Mediterranean Sea, bringing with them their own set of weather conditions. Come summertime, the south of Iran experiences extremely low-pressure centers, creating a hot and arid climate that is characteristic of this region. Pakistan also plays a role in shaping Iran’s weather, with its own low-pressure systems generating two distinct wind patterns that impact the country. The shamāl wind blows northwesterly through the Tigris-Euphrates valley from February to October, providing relief from the heat in some areas. On the other hand, the “120-day” summer wind can be fierce, with speeds reaching up to 70 miles per hour in the Sīstān region near Pakistan. Adding to the complexity of Iran’s climate is the warm Arabian winds that bring moisture from the Persian Gulf, influencing weather patterns in various parts of the country. This mix of influences results in a climate that varies greatly from region to region, making Iran a fascinating place to study and experience different weather phenomena.

Factors such as elevation, latitude, maritime influences, seasonal winds, and proximity to mountain ranges or deserts greatly influence the diurnal and seasonal temperature fluctuations. For instance, the average daytime summer temperature in Ābādān, Khūzestān province, exceeds 110 °F (43 °C), while the average daytime winter high in Tabrīz, East Āz̄arbāyjān province, barely reaches freezing. Precipitation also varies widely across the country, ranging from less than 2 inches (50 mm) in the southeast to approximately 78 inches (1,980 mm) in the Caspian region.

Iran’s diverse climate can be attributed to its unique geographical features and varying topography. The Elburz Mountains play a crucial role in shaping the weather patterns of the northern coastal region, where the majority of precipitation occurs during the winter months. This region is characterized by lush forests, swamps, and rice paddies, thanks to the abundant moisture trapped by the mountains. During the summer, temperatures in the northern coastal region can soar up to 100 degrees Fahrenheit, with high humidity levels close to 100 percent. Despite the scorching heat, frosts are a rare occurrence in this semitropical paradise. The contrast between the hot, humid summers and the cold, wet winters creates a unique environment that supports a diverse range of flora and fauna. In contrast, the southern and eastern parts of Iran experience shorter spring and autumn seasons, eventually merging into a climate characterized by mild winters and hot summers. This transition is a result of the country’s proximity to the Arabian Peninsula and the Indian subcontinent, where the weather is influenced by different climate systems. As a result, these regions experience less variation in temperature throughout the year, with hot and dry conditions prevailing during the summer months. Overall, Iran’s climate is as diverse as its landscapes, offering a range of environments from lush forests to arid deserts. Whether you prefer the cool, misty mountains of the north or the sun-drenched plains of the south, Iran has something to offer for every nature lover.

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