Iran country overview

The economy of Iran

Geography, People, Culture, and Economic Profile

Iran information index

Agriculture, fishing and forestry of Iran

Approximately one-third of Iran’s land is suitable for farming, but only one-tenth of the total land area is currently being cultivated due to poor soil quality and inadequate water distribution. The majority of the cultivated land relies on dry farming, with less than one-third being irrigated. The western and northwestern regions of the country have the most fertile soils.

Agricultural activities accounted for about one-fifth of Iran’s GDP and employed a significant portion of the workforce at the end of the 20th century. However, most farms are small and not economically viable, leading to a large-scale migration to cities. In addition to water scarcity and poor soil conditions, low-quality seeds and outdated farming techniques contribute to low crop yields and poverty in rural areas.

After the 1979 revolution, many agricultural workers claimed ownership rights and forcibly occupied large privately-owned farms where they had previously worked. Legal disputes arising from this situation remained unresolved throughout the 1980s, discouraging farm owners from making necessary investments to improve productivity. However, government efforts and incentives in the 1990s led to a marginal improvement in agricultural productivity, helping Iran move towards its goal of achieving national self-sufficiency in food production. The diverse climatic zones in different parts of the country allow for the cultivation of a variety of crops, including cereals, fruits, vegetables, cotton, sugar beets, nuts, olives, spices, tea, tobacco, and medicinal herbs.

Iran’s forests cover approximately the same amount of land as its agricultural crops, accounting for about one-tenth of the total land area. The Caspian region is home to the largest and most valuable woodland areas, which include both hardwoods and softwoods that can be commercially exploited. Forest products such as plywood, fibreboard, and lumber are used in the construction and furniture industries.

Fishing is also an important industry in Iran, with fish being harvested for both domestic consumption and export. The Caspian Sea is Iran’s most significant fishery, providing a variety of fish species including sturgeon (for caviar), bream, whitefish, salmon, mullet, carp, catfish, perch, and roach. The Persian Gulf is home to over 200 fish species, 150 of which are edible, including shrimps and prawns.

Sheep are the most numerous livestock in Iran, followed by goats, cattle, asses, horses, water buffalo, and mules. Poultry farming for eggs and meat is prevalent, and camels are still raised and bred for transportation purposes.

brics | ICP

and Cooperation

The Information and Cooperation platform IN4U is a digital hub for BRICS members to collaborate, share information, and promote cooperative initiatives. Stay connected and engaged with the latest developments.


The cooperative

The Cooperative Framework of BRICS by IN4U platform is a dedicated digital space for fostering collaboration and cooperation among inter BRICS government entities and international organizations.

BRICS Collaboration Made Easy: Access info & cooperation tools on IN4U.

This website stores cookies on your computer. Privacy Policy