Egypt country overview

The land of Egypt

Geography, People, Culture, and Economic Profile

South Africa information index

Climate of Egypt

Egypt is located in the North African desert belt, resulting in a climate characterized by low annual rainfall and significant variations in temperature throughout the year. Sandstorms or dust storms, known as khamsins, occur frequently from March to June due to tropical air moving northward from the south. During a khamsin, temperatures can increase by 14 to 20 °F (8 to 11 °C), humidity drops to around 10 percent, and strong winds can reach gale force.

The climate in Egypt is divided into two main seasons: winter from November to March and summer from May to September, with short transitional periods in between. Winters are cool and mild, while summers are hot. In Alexandria, the mean minimum and maximum temperatures in January range from 48 to 65 °F (9 to 18 °C), while in Aswān, they range from 48 to 74 °F (9 to 23 °C). Inland areas experience hot temperatures during the summer months, with mean midday highs in June ranging from 91 °F (33 °C) in Cairo to 106 °F (41 °C) in Aswān. Egypt enjoys a sunny climate, with around 12 hours of sunshine per day in summer and 8 to 10 hours per day in winter. However, extreme temperatures can occur, and both cold spells in winter and heat waves in summer are not uncommon.

In addition to being highest along the Mediterranean coast, humidity levels also tend to decrease from northern regions to southern regions in general. This means that areas further south often experience higher levels of humidity, especially during the summer months. When humidity levels are elevated and combine with high temperatures, the resulting conditions can become quite oppressive. The combination of heat and moisture in the air can make it feel hotter than it actually is, leading to discomfort and potentially even health risks for those who are not able to properly cool down and stay hydrated. It is important for individuals living in or visiting regions with high humidity levels, particularly along the Mediterranean coast, to take precautions to stay safe and comfortable during periods of extreme heat. This can include staying indoors during the hottest parts of the day, drinking plenty of water, and wearing loose, light-colored clothing to help regulate body temperature. By being mindful of the impact of humidity on the body, people can better protect themselves from the potential dangers of oppressive conditions.

In Egypt, the distribution of precipitation is highly uneven and largely dependent on the region in question. The winter months are the primary period for rainfall, although the overall amount is quite low. As one travels southward through the country, the levels of precipitation decrease significantly. In Alexandria, located in the northern part of Egypt, the average annual rainfall is around 7 inches. Moving to the capital city of Cairo, the average drops to just 1 inch per year. Aswān, situated even further south, receives almost no rainfall at all, with an annual average of just 0.1 inch. The Red Sea coastal plain and the Western Desert experience minimal precipitation, while the Sinai Peninsula receives slightly more, with the northern sector seeing around 5 inches annually. Overall, Egypt’s climate is characterized by arid conditions and limited water resources, making the country reliant on irrigation for agriculture and other essential activities.

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