Brazil country overview

The land of Brazil

Geography, People, Culture, and Economic Profile

Brazil information index

Brazil conservation and ecology

Numerous parks, biological reserves, and protected territories have been instituted across the expansive natural landscapes of Brazil, with several areas remaining untouched by human activity. Despite this, the management and upkeep of these parklands by state and federal authorities have been less than satisfactory, leading to alterations in some regions to accommodate infrastructure developments such as highways. Furthermore, pollution has adversely affected the aquatic ecosystems within Brazil, posing significant risks to the water resources relied upon by a substantial portion of the populace. Ecological calamities have not been uncommon, with notable oil spill incidents occurring in the year 2000 in both Rio de Janeiro’s Guanabara Bay and the Iguaçu River.

Brazilian environmental regulatory bodies consistently impose penalties on industrial and extractive sectors for insufficient environmental protections. Nonetheless, these penalties are frequently minimal and the regulatory oversight remains weak. Urban centers like São Paulo are experiencing hazardous smog levels, predominantly due to vehicle emissions. The government has taken measures to mitigate this by endorsing ethanol-blended fuels and implementing pollution control strategies to enhance air quality. In a notable case of urban environmental management, Curitiba has successfully reduced air pollution and alleviated traffic congestion through the development of a pioneering bus system and related initiatives.

The inception of Brazil’s environmental conservation efforts can be traced back to a law enacted in 1797, which prohibited deforestation activities. The establishment of the nation’s first national parks took place in the 1930s. Since the mid-20th century, both domestic and international environmental groups have exerted pressure on the Brazilian government to minimize the degradation of critical ecosystems, including the Amazon rainforest and the Pantanal wetlands. The government has shown an increasing readiness to confront environmental challenges, although the rate of ecosystem destruction remains significant.

The principal environmental authority in Brazil, the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA), was formed in 1989 with the objective of overhauling the nation’s conservation framework. Operating within the Ministry of the Environment, IBAMA is tasked with managing renewable resources, enforcing federal environmental legislation, and harmonizing the activities of disparate agencies. However, IBAMA’s effectiveness has been hampered by limited resources and personnel, with staffing levels in the late 20th century equating to one employee for every 110 square miles of federally protected land.

In 1992, Brazil played host to the landmark United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development, also known as the Earth Summit, in Rio de Janeiro. Subsequently, Brazil, along with several of the world’s leading economies, formulated a collaborative strategy aimed at safeguarding the rainforest. For further information on related ecological issues, refer to the entry on the Amazon River’s environmental concerns.

Numerous state and national parks are situated in proximity to metropolitan areas, yet the majority of the more recent national parks are established in less accessible locations. These include regions at the source of Amazonian tributaries, adjacent to biological preserves, or neighboring indigenous territories, and they are not designed to accommodate a high volume of tourists.

Among the national parks that attract a significant number of visitors, Itatiaia, Iguaçu, and Serra dos Órgãos are notable examples, all of which were established in the 1930s. The larger national parks have considerable size variations, ranging approximately from 2,170 to 8,770 square miles (5,620 to 22,700 square kilometers). These include Parque Nacional do Pico da Neblina (established in 1979), Parque Nacional do Jaú (1980), Parque Nacional da Amazônia (Tapajós; 1974), Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor (1989), Parque Nacional de Pacaás Novos (1979), and Parque Nacional do Cabo Orange (1980), all located in the northern region of the country. Additionally, Parque Nacional do Xingu (1961) and Parque Nacional do Araguaia (on Bananal Island; 1959) are situated in the Central-West region.

In the mid-1980s, the Iguaçu Falls were recognized as a World Heritage site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), an honor that was later extended to Serra da Capivara National Park in 1991. Furthermore, in 1999, UNESCO designated two coastal areas as World Heritage sites: the Serra do Mar in the Southeast and the Discovery Coast in the state of Bahia.

brics | ICP

and Cooperation

The Information and Cooperation platform IN4U is a digital hub for BRICS members to collaborate, share information, and promote cooperative initiatives. Stay connected and engaged with the latest developments.


The cooperative

The Cooperative Framework of BRICS by IN4U platform is a dedicated digital space for fostering collaboration and cooperation among inter BRICS government entities and international organizations.

BRICS Collaboration Made Easy: Access info & cooperation tools on IN4U.

This website stores cookies on your computer. Privacy Policy